Legal

Kersh Law Firm – What to Look For In a Great Lawyer

If you have run into some legal difficulties and you need to lawyer up then it is important that you spend the time on finding the very best lawyer for you. Regardless of whether you have been slapped with a DUI, gotten yourself caught up in a dispute with your employer or are about to file a petition for divorce, the things to look for in a great lawyer remain the same. I have a friend who works for Kersh law firm and he has helped me to put together a quick checklist of what you should be looking for in a great lawyer.

Reputation

A good reputation in law is hard to earn and easy to destroy which is why if you can find a lawyer with a great track record, you are going to be well on your way to getting yourself the very best legal representation. When looking for a lawyers rep focus on the law firm that they work for rather than their individual reputation. The reason for this is that there are many brilliant young lawyers who haven’t had a chance to build a reputation just yet, but the law firm that they work for understands their capabilities and if their reputation is great then you know that you can trust their team.

Communication

Many lawyers fail to realize that their clients don’t know as much as they do and as a result their communication skills can be terrible. The truth is that very few of us actually know anything about the law or how cases are tried and this is why you need to know that you have a lawyer who is going to keep you in the loop with everything that is going on. Regardless of the case you will no doubt be going through some emotional turmoil which is exactly why you need a lawyer who will inform you of everything going on in the case, and to put your mind at ease.

Empathetic

When you find a great lawyer you will find that they are incredibly empathetic to what you are going through and they will act as both a support to you and a lawyer. Some lawyers just don’t have empathy and whilst they believe that it helps them to win cases, the truth is that their clients are not always happy with their approach. A great lawyer will do both, they will present a strong case on your behalf and they will be empathetic towards your issues.

Competitive Price

As you can imagine the very best lawyers cost the highest amount of money but at the very least these prices should be competitive. A greta lawyer should be able to offer you a great service and do so without taking your eyeballs out when it comes to price.

Make sure that you invest a lot of time in finding yourself the very best lawyer for whatever case it is that you are dealing with.

Finding the right discrimination Lawyer

Today in this world, there are many people who are experiencing discrimination, despite what some might say. First of all know that discrimination can come in many forms, such as gender, race, religion, color, etc. Just because you are not facing color discrimination, doesn’t mean there are no such things.

If you find yourself in a situation where you are experiencing discrimination, a lawsuit might be in your best favor. You will need several things to find a good lawyer like Ravi Sattiraju who will help you out in the case of discrimination. There are many things that should be taken into consideration while you are looking for the best lawyer. Because finding the right lawyer is 90% of the struggle for winning your case. The rest 10% will be to tell the lawyer all the things that you know about the company or the person. Once you have done all of these things. You will surely get a lot of money in the claim once the case is finished.

Tip to find the right lawyer

Below are some of the tips you can make use of to find the right lawyer for your case.

  • Take a look at the education of the lawyer
  • Experience of the lawyer’s matter in all the cases. So, make sure you choose an experienced lawyer
  • Make a google search and check out the reviews and ratings of the same
  • See how they communicate, ask them a lot of questions, ask them any doubts or queries you have. Do not hesitate. You are paying them for the case. It is their duty to answer them all
  • Check their website, you will come to know about various things
  • Ask them if they are willing to take the case further in front of the jury if there is no settlement done. Although the settlement is seen in most cases it is always the best option to keep the path open.
  • Check the total amount of money they have claimed in discrimination cases. Ravi Sattiraju has claimed $2.8 Million in a single discrimination case. Therefore, you need to find such a lawyer that can claim a lot of your money
  • Ask your friends and family if they have been in any similar situation. Ask them about the lawyer they worked with.

 

These are some of the tips you should keep in mind while you are choosing a lawyer for a discrimination case. Once you have found the lawyer, make sure you tell them about every single little detail that you know. Tell them everything about how discrimination is seen and all the things that a company or the person did to you. In this way, you will get proper justice for what has happened to you.

 

How to Select a Medical Malpractice Lawyer: The Three Most Important Steps You Need to Take Before You Hire a Medical Malpractice Attorney

Sadly, thousands of patients will be injured this year because of errors committed by medical providers. Institutions and licensed medical professionals have a legal and ethical duty to adhere to reasonable standards of care when treating patients. As a patient, you have the right to expect and receive competent treatment and care. When you suffer an injury because of negligence, a medical malpractice lawyer can help you understand your legal rights and the responsibilities of a medical provider.

Patients Hurt by Medical Negligence, Errors and Mistakes Deserve to Be Compensated for Injuries

All medical providers and healthcare institutions owe a duty of care to their patients. Medical providers include, but are not limited to, family doctors, hospitals, pharmacists, specialists, surgeons, nurses, and technicians. If a medical provider fails to meet the healthcare industry’s acceptable standard of care because of negligence or a deliberate act, the result may constitute a breach of that duty.

Under the medical malpractice laws of Texas, the provider may be held liable for the pain, suffering, and injuries caused by the breach of the medical professional’s duty of care. When you trust a healthcare professional to provide the care you need when you are injured or sick, it can be difficult to know what to do when the person you trusted causes an injury.

Hiring a Texas Medical Malpractice Lawyer to Protect Your Legal Rights

Unfortunately, most people are unprepared for incidents of medical malpractice. Most individuals and families are overwhelmed when a medical provider’s negligence causes severe injury or death. The psychological, emotional, physical, and financial consequences and hardships can cause people to delay contacting an attorney.

However, the right to file a claim or take legal action is not an indefinite right. You must act before the deadline set by the Texas statute of limitations or lose your right to file a medical malpractice claim. Therefore, one of the first steps for a victim of medical malpractice is to consult with a lawyer to protect the victim’s right to seek compensation for losses, but how do you know which Houston medical malpractice attorney to hire.

Searching for a Medical Malpractice Attorney in Texas

Step One: Hire a Law Firm with a Full-Time Doctor on Staff

One of the most important factors to consider when choosing a medical malpractice law firm is whether the law firm employs full-time medical professionals on staff. You have a better chance of recovering the compensation you deserve for your injuries when trained medical professionals and highly competent medical malpractice lawyers work together on a full-time basis to investigate your claim. In addition, when you hire a law firm that employs a full-time doctor and nurse on staff, you receive the expertise of trained medical professionals and seasoned medical malpractice lawyers for one fee.

In many cases, a critical piece of evidence could be missed because an attorney does not have medical training. Without medical training, it can sometimes be difficult to recognize preventable errors and discrepancies in care or treatment as medical malpractice. However, to recover compensation for a medical malpractice claim, you must have evidence that demonstrates the provider’s negligence or mistake was the cause of the patient’s death, injury, or illness.  Therefore, a doctor is needed to review each piece of evidence diligently and meticulously in a case to determine if the provider breached the standard of care. The doctor can then assist the attorney in gathering the evidence required to prove the provider committed medical malpractice.

Step Two: Understand the Qualities You Should Look for and What to Avoid When Searching for a Medical Malpractice Law Firm in Texas

When you search for a Houston medical malpractice lawyer, it is important to understand the qualities of a competent, skilled, and highly-trained attorney.

Qualities that you desire in an attorney include:

  • Uses Plain English — An ability to explain complex legal theories and processes in easy-to-understand terms.
  • Trustworthiness — You want an attorney who displays honesty when discussing your legal options. You need an attorney who provides realistic expectations instead of promises of high-dollar verdicts and settlements.
  • Access — Ability to contact the attorney directly with questions and concerns instead of being passed off to other staff members on a consistent basis.
  • Positive Communication Skills —You need to have a good rapport with your attorney because you will be working very closely with this person to hold a negligent doctor or other provider accountable for his or her actions.

It is also helpful to understand the traits and characteristics to avoid when hiring an attorney. Some of the warning signs that you should watch for that may indicate you may not receive personalized, dedicated representation include:

  • Offers unrealistic guarantees of the outcome in your case;
  • Requires an upfront retainer fee;
  • Fails to follow-up when you call or email with additional questions;
  • Ignores your questions or gives vague answers using legalese; and,
  • Does not remember the details of your case when you have a second meeting with the attorney to discuss retaining the law firm.

Step Three: Interview the Attorneys — You are Hiring a Law Firm to Work for You

The law firm that you retain works for you. Therefore, you should interview the law firm and the attorney just as you would any other person you wanted to hire to perform a job. Your interview should cover important factors, including:

  • Experience — Search for medical malpractice attorneys who have decades of experience handling these types of personal injury cases.
  • References — Do not be shy about asking for references.
  • Reasonable Fees — Compare the fees of several firms but remember that hiring an attorney based on the lowest fee may result in a less than acceptable outcome in your case.
  • Practice Area — Search for a law firm that focuses its practice on medical malpractice instead of all areas of personal injury law.
  • Reputation — Research the law firm and each of the attorneys online.
  • Resources — Ask about the law firm’s resources. Experienced medical malpractice firms have developed a network of experts and resources the attorneys can rely upon to assist with cases. Law firms with a full-time MD and nurse on staff are focused on proving medical negligence. They are extremely serious about pursuing medical malpractice claims because they have hired the full-time personnel necessary to investigate claims of medical malpractice fully and completely.
  • Success — Ask about past medical malpractice settlements and jury verdicts. While the results in other cases do not guarantee a positive result in your case, a proven successful track record is a must when hiring a Houston medical malpractice law firm.

Trust Your Instincts!

In the end, trust your feelings about an attorney. While you should be diligent in researching and interviewing a medical malpractice attorney, you must also feel comfortable and at ease with the person. It is okay to trust your feelings when searching for a medical malpractice law firm to represent you as you seek justice from the medical provider who caused your injury.

Why You Should be Investing in Real Estate

I have always dabbled a little when it came to investing, nothing too heavy just a few stocks and shares and the occasional oil future to make me a little bit of money from my savings to pay for that next vacation. Every time that I spoke with anyone about investment, they would always tell me that I should be investing my money in bricks and mortar. The problem that I had was that I didn’t like the idea of investing so much money in one fell swoop, I could afford it but I just felt as though there was risk attached to such a large investment.

I started researching online a little and I saw a promotional video from Joseph Johnson Welfont Group’s CEO about how easy and profitable real estate investment could be. I got on the phone straight away and began searching for my first property. Before long I was signing a contract on a small apartment and 3 years on I have 2 more properties and I am firmly in the black for my investments. If you are anything like I was back then, here are a few reasons why you need to invest in real estate.

Great Profit Options

There are 3 real options when it comes to how you will profit from your real estate investment. The first of which is to look for the long term, buying a reasonable priced property and let the rent come in each month to give you some liquid cash whilst you wait for the value of the property to rise. The second option is to flip houses, this is a quick money making method which sees you searching for great bargains and then selling on quickly for a profit. The final option is somewhere between the two, buying to sell but being prepared to rent out for a little while until the value is just right.

Safety of Investment

Unlike with stocks and shares, real estate is something tangible that you can see and touch, consider it as a big pile of money which has a changing value. The housing market is far more stable than any other financial market and whilst it can fall, it generally rises again, if you have time on your hands then you can feel safe in the knowledge that you are unlikely to lose a great deal of money.

Supply and Demand

We have a growing population and as such there is far more demand for housing than there is supply. This means that if you are looking to rent out or sell your property, you should not have too much trouble in doing so. There is constant pressure on governments to build more housing but this demand is never met which means that if you are smart in terms of what kind property you buy, you can cash in on this demand and make yourself a great deal of profit.

School Flunks Who Hit The Big Time

Over 1 million American students each year drop out of school, these people are often faced with a difficult life, searching for ways to support themselves and their family and trying to nail down a solid job despite their lack of qualifications. Many of these people end up in the crime and the welfare system but this can not be said for all of them. In fact, across the World there are many incredibly successful people who in fact never made it through school and today we are going to shine a light on these examples of school drop outs who hit the big time.

 

Richard Branson

 

Aged just 15, a young Englishman named Richard Branson felt that school was no longer serving his purposes or successfully preparing him or life so he decided to quit. Branson went on to form many small and successful businesses until at aged 21 he invested in his very own record label. The music business was a successes and this catapulted Branson to becoming a business mogul who counted to buy businesses and create his Virgin brand. As it stands, Branson has a fortune of almost $5 billion and his Virgin label appears on between 200 and 300 companies, guess he made the right decision as a young 15 year old.

 

TB Joshua

 

World-famous pastor and prophet TB Joshua failed to even make it to his second year of high school and instead dedicated his time to god. The boy that his friends called ‘small pastor’ worked on a chicken farm for income and would regularly hold local Bible study groups. The young man of God received a heavenly intervention which told him that he should build a church and the Nigerian set about constructing the Synagogue Church of All Nations or SCOAN for short. Throughout the years the congregation has grown at an alarming rate and it currently has over 15,000 members and is responsible for the largest amount of Nigerian tourism. Thanks to the pastor’s many successful prophecies, he has also gained fame for his YouTube presence and his channel has received over 660 million views since its inception.

 

Quentin Tarantino

 

Far beyond his multi-million dollar movie empire and his status as one of the greatest movie directors that has ever lived, Quentin Tarantino was a high school drop out. The young Tarantino had his mind set on the film industry from a young age and when he was just 15 he dropped out of high school to work full time in a movie theater and attend acting classes. Tarantino’s gamble paid off and after completing his first film, Reservoir Dogs, which gained immediate success, the director went on to create some o the World’s most iconic and highest grossing films of all time including Kill Bill, Pulp Fiction and Django Unchained. His success has seen him win many awards and such is his directing style that you don’t have to watch a film for very long to work out if it is a Tarantino production, not bad for a school drop out.

What to Do If You Have An Accident At Work

Whether you work in an office block, on a building site or in a supermarket, there is always a risk that you could have an accident at work. In this modern age most business take extraordinary steps to ensure that the work place is as safe an environment as possible but that doesn’t mean that accidents are impossible to come by.

Most people never think that will never have an accident at work but for their own protection it is worth preparing for the possibility that it may happen. There is a reason that top lawyers like Jeffrey Glassman are in the business of personal injury law and that is because there are still too many workplace accidents at work each year. Should this unfortunate incident happen to you, here is what you need to do about it.

Fill Out an Accident Report

The first step to take is to fill out an accident report as soon as the incident has taken place or as soon as you are able to fill out a report. The large majority of businesses will have an accident book where you will log exactly what happened, when it happened and where it happened. If there were witnesses who saw the incident take place then ensure that they too fill out their information on the accident report. This report is vital as filling out straight away will mean that the information is fresh in your mind and you can add all the relevant pieces of information.

See a Doctor

Even if you cannot see or feel an injury straight away it is still important that you visit a doctor, problems like concussion and whiplash may not be felt for some days after the event and as such it is best to seek medical advice sooner rather than later.

Report and Injury

If you have sustained an injury then ensure that you report this to your place of work as soon as possible, the idea is to ensure that every piece of information about your accident is logged in as you need to call on it in the future. Take a note from the doctor or hospital to prove your injury and take a photocopy and leave it in the file with your accident report.

Visit Your Union

If you are in a union then it will be a good idea to go and see them and gain some advice about what you should do. Unions have experts in fields such as accidents at work and they can give you the full run down on what steps you need to take.

Lawyer Up

If you feel aggrieved and that the accident was not your fault then you need to go to a specialist personal injury lawyer who can fight your case. The idea of bringing a case against your employers is not only to receive some compensation for what happened but also to help to avoid the same situation taking place for somebody else.

 

Business Car insurance FAQs

If you own vehicles that you use for business purposes, then you likely will need to get business, or commercial, car insurance. Commercial car insurance is different from personal car insurance, so you may have some questions before you find a policy. Here’s a look at some frequently asked questions about this type of insurance.

What Coverage Is Available?

The coverage under a commercial policy is similar to a personal policy. You will be able to get coverage for property damages and injuries to others. You may also be able to get coverage for damages to your own car and injuries to you and your passengers. Commercial insurance also offers options for employees who drive your vehicles during work hours. Another coverage specific to business is loading and unloading liability. You may be able to get replacement reimbursement so you can get a replacement vehicle if yours is not operational due to an accident.

Is Commercial Insurance Customizable?

Yes. You can customize your insurance to meet your business needs. For example, if you have a few vehicles that are used for business, you can get them all covered under one policy. You can also customize the drivers of your vehicles and get special coverage to help if a vehicle is damaged in an accident and cannot be used. You also are able to opt out of some coverage that isn’t needed for your business.

Do I Need Insurance?

In most states, it is a law that you must have coverage. However, even if it isn’t the law, you should still have coverage. Losing your vehicle in an accident or having an employee responsible for an accident can take a huge financial toll on your business. By having insurance you are protecting yourself and your business. You get the peace of mind that you will have help paying for any damages or injuries that result from an accident involving your business vehicles.

Insurance is especially important for businesses that rely heavily on their vehicles. For example, delivery services are going to be on the road a lot, so the risk is higher for accidents or other incidents. However, even if your business doesn’t use the vehicles a lot, you still need insurance on them.

 

How Do I Know if I Need Commercial or Personal Auto Insurance?

If the vehicle is in the business’ name, then you will need commercial insurance no matter what you use it for. However, if it is in your name, you may still need commercial insurance in certain cases. If it is used for hauling products, transporting business supplies, delivery services or transporting people, then you will likely need commercial insurance.

How Do I Get Commercial Insurance?

Many of the same companies that sell personal auto insurance also sell commercial insurance. As with any time you purchase insurance, you should shop around. You can use a site like carinsurancecheap.net to help you compare your options.

How Much Does It Cost?

Costs of commercial auto insurance will vary based on a few different factors, but it should be noted that it will almost always be more expensive than your personal insurance. The type of vehicles you are insuring will play largely into the cost. Bigger vehicles will cost more than passenger cars. What you are hauling may also play into the cost. You may need special coverage for certain materials, which will increase your rates.

Costs are also influenced by your drivers. You should always do a driver’s record check before hiring an employee to ensure he or she has a good driving record. Accidents or other violations on a driving record will increase your costs. The age of drivers will influence rates, too. Drivers over 30 usually get better rates.

When it comes to commercial auto insurance, you probably will need it if you are using vehicles in your business in any capacity. Commercial insurance generally is more expensive than personal auto insurance because of the increased risks. With a business vehicle, it is being driven by more people with various backgrounds. It is also often being used to haul items. These things add to the risks and costs should the vehicle be in an accident. Overall, it is simply best to get the insurance and just shop around for the best rates.

 

Here Are the Local SEO Myths Trapping Small Law Firms

When it comes to search engine optimization (SEO), there is a lot of information out there, but not all of it is good. “Gurus” offer up advice on thousands of blogs, touting their follower counts and spelling out wildly varying plans to game the system. The fact is, good SEO is a process, and good local SEO is a process that involves constant work to maintain. It’s not something you can fast-track, but it is something you can plan for.

One of the best ways to make sure your SEO plan is helping your company is by knowing and steering clear of the major myths that small law firms keep falling for time and again. By avoiding these practices, you can take your time and effort and invest it in practices that will help you achieve the page ranking your company needs.

Myth #1: Posting on Google+ Will Help Rankings

While it might be a good idea to post from your blog to the network because social media engagement is desirable, posting to Google+ does not actually help individual site rankings, apart from the way the views it naturally picks up from clicks through will help. There are more efficient ways to gain those views, though, and Google+ is not a major force as a social networking site at the moment.

Myth #2: Quality Content Brings Its Own Visitors

This myth is often used to convince people with very little experience in SEO that their high quality content is good enough. The truth is, when it comes to visibility the content needs a push to take off. Quality content will gather its own momentum and spread farther than you expect it will, but you still need the right marketing practices to make sure your audience finds it and shares it.

Myth #3: Link Building is All That Matters

It’s true that at one time, links were the main method that sites used to gain Google rankings, but those days have long passed. The fact of the matter is that Google’s algorithm changes continuously to take advantage of new sources of data as the internet itself changes. From indexing social media posts on platforms like Facebook to using an advanced bot to rank the quality of the writing on a site, Google attempts to take the whole site into consideration when determining page rank, so good SEO strategists know to work on all of these aspects of a site’s visibility.

Myth #4: Service-Area Businesses Rank Higher in More Spots With a Larger Service Area

This is simply not true either. While a large service area can help you rank strongly in your local city, you need directed SEO efforts to make sure you rank in each additional city you cover. That means a larger service area might eventually pay off with much higher ranking, but only after you have done the work of optimizing your content for a variety of geolocations. There’s no magic fix.

Myth #5: Search Engine Optimization is Obsolete

This is another giant misconception. While it is true that there have been a variety of changes to search engine optimization practices over the years, SEO is very much alive and a vital part of your law firm’s long-term strategy. Without it, you might enjoy some exposure on individual social networks, but there will not be a strong central hub for your company’s online activity.

If you are working on getting your law firm locally ranked in your area, you need partners who can help you cut through the myths by providing you and your staff with up-to-date training and information about the most recent version of Google’s algorithm. That means hiring help, and it also means clicking away from the marketing “gurus.”

Car Accident Basics You Should Know

If we are to look at personal injury claims it is easy to notice that automobile accidents are cited in the majority of cases. In 2012 we had over 5.5 million car crashes reported in the US and the number is rising every single year.

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Motor Vehicle Accidents – The Law

Christensen & Hymas highlights that legal claims appearing because of vehicle accidents will not be connected with negligence law. Operating automobiles automatically implies reasonable care. If vehicles are not used with a reasonable care, we are faced with negligence. If one person operates a vehicle in a negligent way and an accident appears, he is required by law to pay for all the damages, either to a property or to a person. An injured party is known as the plaintiff and needs to prove that someone was negligent and caused an injury.

Vehicle Accidents And Negligence

The party at fault in an accident is the one that was negligent. While you may know that someone made a mistake, it is not so easy to prove it in front of law. Attorneys normally take a look at various different sources in order to determine accident fault. This includes state traffic laws, witnesses and police reports.

Legal professionals analyze various factors when determining negligence. This includes: not signaling when turning, disobeying traffic signals, not taking weather into account, driving above speed limits, being under the influence of alcohol and disregarding traffic conditions.

Besides negligence, we also have other common automobile accident causes you should be aware of, like:

  • Reckless driving – reckless conduct has to be proven.
  • Drunk driving – blood alcohol tests are performed.

Drivers Are Not Always The Cause Of The Accident

In various cases we see that car accidents are caused by various factors that are not connected to driver conduct. As an example, one of the vehicles involved may have had a defect or a part might have become damaged. Suppliers or automobile manufacturers are considered to be responsible if their actions caused the car accident. Product liability suits are going to be started in this case.

Different other factors like malfunctioning traffic control signals or roads that are poorly maintained can cause accidents. A simple highway defect can cause a huge car crash that can be fatal for those involved. When lawsuits and claims are filed against a governmental body, there are specific rules that are to be applied. IN this case it is vital that you hire attorneys to help you win cases.

Legal Help

Whenever an injury appeared because of the negligence or the actions of a third party, you have to at least consult a specialized attorney. This is because the legal specialist is going to basically guarantee that the best possible result will be achieved. Legal professionals in this industry offer free consultations so there is no reason why not to profit from it. You will be able to find a highly experienced professional to help you deal with the complex legal matters associated with personal injuries appearing during car accidents.

What Kind Of Attributes Do You Need to Be a Lawyer

Being a lawyer isn’t quite as dramatic as what you are likely to see on TV when some maverick stands in middle of a courtroom defending someone wrongly accused of a crime they didn’t commit. The reality is a  little more boring but no less rewarding and as far as careers go, opting to become a lawyer is one of the best choices that you could make.

Successful lawyers like Jonathan Bunge work tirelessly every day to ensure that justice is done in the fairest way possible and that everyone is entitled to strong representation should they need it. As a lawyer you will find yourself in a profession which is highly respected and well paid and if you think that this is something for you, then there are some attributes and qualities which you are going to need.

Hard Working

Becoming a lawyer and working as one are some of the toughest challenges that you are likely to face and if you want to be sure that you not only qualify to practice law but can also be a valuable asset in a firm then you are going to have to have a hard working attitude. Lawyers can expect long hours and 7-day weeks when working on a case and you need to have a work ethic that can match the demands.

Persuasiveness

In your role as a lawyer you will be charged with persuading a judge and a jury that your side of the argument is the one that they should believe. In order to make this happen you need to be able to properly structure an argument and be able to make your point in a convincing way. Your argument will also need to be flexible so that you will have the ability to persuade different types of people.

Team Working

A legal case is never solved by a single lawyer and when working on a case you will feature as part of a team made of up many different roles. In order to succeed as a lawyer, you need to be able to understand the team dynamic and how each of the different roles affect what the team does. The best lawyers can play any role within a team setting and there is no room here for ego, you must deliver your part of the team to a high standard.

Ability to Process and Store Information

 Both when you are studying and when you are practicing will require yo to process huge amounts of information. You will need to be able to sift through information like legal documents, previous cases and the law itself and be able to highlight the important points. Once you ahem deduced the information you will need to have the ability to retain this sin your mind and be able to tap into it when required. This is not an easy skill and if you want to be a successful lawyer then you will most certainly need to possess this attribute.